History on the village of Gornal in the county of Staffordshire. Research is augmented with photographs, details of licensees, stories of local folklore, census data, newspaper articles and a genealogy connections section for those studying their family history.



Background Information
There were once over sixty pubs in Gornal. Sadly, the majority have closed and many demolished. A reflection perhaps of the times, but perhaps also epitomising the change in Gornal itself, once a heartland of mining, quarrying and brick-making, but with little large-scale industry in the modern age.

Gornal is spread over a wide geographical area and within this section of the website, you will find information on pubs in Upper Gornal, Lower Gornal and Gornal Wood, along with smaller locales such as Cinders, Cooper's Bank, Dibdale, Graveyard, Modenhill, Ruiton, Spills Meadow and The Straits.

Gornal is supposedly the home of the mythical Black Country characters, Aynuk and Ayli. "Peeing in the Cut" is a typical daft story featuring this pair of dunderheads: "On there way home from the pub one night, much the worse for drink Aynuk and Ayli decided to take a short cut along the canal. Nearly home they reached a point where towpath rose up over a side arm spanned by one of the many cast iron bridges. At this point Aynuk stopped and turned to his pal saying "It's no gud aer kid arn gorra stop uz arm bostin ferra pee" "Ar, an me" replied his mate. So both friends stood on the parapit of the bridge and relieved themselves splashing into the canal far below whilst remembering how they'd done exactly the same many times as young lads. After a while staring at the water some distance below Aynuk looked at his pal and said "It's bloody dark daern theer ay it." The reply was imediate "Ar an the wertuz code."

Upper Gornal is along the ridge between Dudley and Sedgley, Lower Gornal is to the south-west and further down the hill is Gornal Wood [the bit where all the local shops are and what the locals call 'The Village']. A small area called Ruiton is what many call hardcore or deepest Gornal. Many of the properties and walls here are built with locally-quarried stone, including a windmill [see photographs in the gallery above] that has been disused since 1871. It's demise was due to a new steam mill operated in nearby Sedgley. There is a colloquial joke that there used to be two windmills but there 'wor enuf wind fer buth of 'em.' The second mill was close to where The Old Mill pub is located in [predictably] Windmill Street.

It is thought that the name of Gornal is derived from the Anglo-Saxon 'cweorn-halh' which means 'the mill in the remote place.' Later spellings of Gornal are 'Guernal', 'Gwernal', 'Guarnall' and 'Goronal'. The history of Gornal is linked with coal and salt. Although many worked in mines and quarries, some of the town's men and women travelled around the rest of the Black Country flogging salt and sand from carts. The sand was locally quarried and finely crushed so that it could be used as a scouring powder.

Ellowes Hall

Lower Gornal used to have a number of coal pits, most of which formed part of the Himley coalfield owned by Lord Ward of Himley Hall. These were largely located at the foot of Turner's Hill, a short distance from Ellowes Hall. Designed by Thomas Lee Jnr., the hall was erected in the early 1820's for John Turton Fereday and his wife Anne Cecilia Hemming. The mansion was sold to the Bilston ironmaster William Baldwin in 1850. The house was occupied by a number of local dignitaries over the years before it started to fall into decay. The building was used by the Home Guard during World War Two. Following an arson attack, the hall was demolished in 1964. Ellowes Hall School was built on part of the gardens and grounds.

Church of St. James by Thomas Peploe Wood

Constructed between 1815-17, the church of St. James was built in the early English style. Although opened in 1817, it was not consecrated until 1823. The first incumbent was the Reverend Theodosius who was instrumental in raising the money to construct the building. The church was enlarged in 1837 by E. Marsh and a later refit of 1863 included the addition of the chancel. by J. Bourne. The polygonal apse by T. H. Fleeming dates from 1889 and ten years later the tower was restored by the Sedgley mason, Benjamin Gibbons. The organ was installed in 1899 and the North window of the apse by Ninian Comper was fitted three years later.

St. Peter's Church by Thomas Peploe Wood

The main church at Upper Gornal is dedicated to St. Peter. Designed by R. Ebbles, it was built between 1840-1, again using local stone. A decade later a chancel was added. This featured a memorial window to Rev. S. F. Montgomery, who was Vicar from 1842 to 1847. The building features two polygonal turrets at the front which are influenced by King's College Chapel, though these have been shortened and capped. Gornal was once littered with chapels as it was quite a hotbed of non-conformity in the 19th century.
© Copyright. Posted on 8th January 2012
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and Staffordshire Past-Track.

Gornal Wood Zoar Chapel [c.1907]

Related Newspaper Articles
"Joseph Penn, aged 32, was indicted for the wilful murder of Prudence Hughes on the 24th of September last, in the parish of Sedgley, in this county. Mr. Yardley and Mr. Huddleston conducted the case on the part of the prosecution; and Mr. Allen [with whom was Mr. Keyson] appeared for the prisoner. The prisoner, whose occupation was that of drawing coals, resided at Caddick's End, near Dudley; and it appeared that an illicit connection had for some years existed between him and the deceased, who lived at Sedgley, and that by her he had several children. On the night of the 23rd of September last the prisoner and the deceased were at a public-house in Birmingham Street, Dudley, called the Hare and Mounds, where there yeas a woman named Ann Slater, who lived with the deceased, and three men, Hill, Walker, and Ball. At about midnight the prisoner, the deceased, Ann Slater, and Hill, left the Hare and Hounds, and proceeded along the road towards Sedgley. There was much discrepancy in the testimony of the witnesses to the state in which these four persons were at that time, some declaring that neither of them were sober, and the others positively denying that any one of them was in the slightest degree intoxicated. Slater and Hill walked first, and the prisoner and the deceased followed. After they had proceeded some distance along the road the deceased came up to Ann Slater and Hill and showed her lip, which was cut through and slightly bleeding; at this time the prisoner was about five yards behind them. Shortly afterwards Ann Slater stopped at the house of a Mr. Cartwright, which was on the road, and the deceased and Hill went on about forty yards, when the prisoner came up with them. Hill walked after this time as far as a public house called the Green Dragon, and on turning and retracing his steps in about ten minutes, saw the prisoner and deceased on opposite sides of the road, and heard him say to her "d**** your eyes, you ought to be ashamed of yourself." The prisoner then went towards Dudley, and Hill immediately approached the deceased, who was crying, and he remained with her for about ten minutes, and just before she parted from him he noticed the prisoner walking on the opposite side of the road, in the direction of Sedgley, and about five minutes afterwards the deceased left him and proceeded on her way home. Hill and Ann Slater went along a different road. The prisoner was dressed in a white smock-frock. About two, a.m. on the 24th, that is on the same night, or rather following morning, a man, named Carter, who lived at Gornal, hearing a scream proceed, as he thought, from a woman, rose up, and going to his window, saw a man in a white frock, and a woman with him. The man said to the woman "You d**** b****, I've been watching you," and then struck her with his fist between the shoulders, but rather lower down on the back. The blow sent her reeling. The woman said nothing then. The man then struck her again with his fist in nearly the same place, and she fell to the ground. Carter, on seeing this, opened his window, and cried out, "My man, you had like to have done it," but received no answer. The woman said, "It's of no use, I cannot go any farther." Carter then heard a trickling, as of water. The man laid hold of the woman's left arm and helped her along. Carter saw another man, and then a man and a woman pass his window. At seven o'clock Carter got up, and saw on the road under his window, where the woman had been lying, some blood, and about twelve yards further on, found traces of blood, and in one spot the track was about one foot in width. The woman had on a dark shawl, and this the man removed and threw over his own shoulder. Maria Cartwright, the post mistress of Gornal, on the morning of the same day, heard under her window, which fronted the road, a man's voice in anger, and heard a blow, in a moment afterwards she heard a second blow, and a stifled cry of oh, in a female voice. She described it as if the person who uttered the sound had her mouth covered with the hand. Mrs. Cartwright heard a third blow, which was followed by another stifled cry, in a female voice, of "murder." This occurred at about two o'clock. Two policemen, Isaac Tomkinson and Francis Eager, who were on duty that morning, found on the road near a field, the prisoner and the deceased. The deceased was lying across the side of the path, and resting on a bundle containing blankets, and the prisoner was standing beside her. Tomkinson asked the prisoner what was the matter, and he said that she had been drinking in Birmingham Street, and was intoxicated. Tomkinson, however, perceiving some blood, inquired what was the meaning of that; when the prisoner stated that the woman was his wife, and was miscarrying. Tomkinson then went for a cart, and meeting Ann Slater, sent her for a surgeon. While Tomkinson was absent, Eager [the other policeman], with the assistance of the prisoner and of a man named Wilcox, carried the deceased to a public house called the Jolly Crispins, and soon after the surgeon's arrival and the return of Tomklnson, conveyed the prisoner to the station at Coseley. Both the policemen stated that the prisoner had on a white smock-frock, and the deceased a dark-coloured shawl. There were marks of blood on the prisoner's dress, which however might, as it was suggested, had been received while he was assisting in the removal of the deceased, and holding her legs, as during that time she was bleeding profusely. While at the station house at Coseley, the prisoner made a statement to Maurice Costello, a policeman there, the substance of which was that he accidentally came into the company of the deceased and Ann Slater at Dudley - that they partly forced, partly induced him to go and drink with them at the Hare and Hounds. That he wished the deceased to go home and mind her children, and watched her on the road to see whether she would do so. That at Gornal he went into a dark corner to see whether she would go home, and in a few minutes, on coming back, saw her leaning against a wall, and a man kneeling or sitting within a yard of her. The prisoner further stated that he then asked her why she did not go home, and put his hand to her and pushed her. That he might have struck her, but that he did not think he had done so, and that he was very tipsy at the time. Having said this, the prisoner began to cry, and expressed a hope that Costello would do the best he could for him. The prisoner appears to have supported the children to the best of his ability, and it was proved that be rendered every assistance in carrying the unfortunate woman from the road into the Jolly Crispins. On the other hand, it was stated by Walker and Ball, the two men who were at the Hare and Hounds on the same night as the prisoner and the deceased, that he had said respecting her "She is a rum one, and I'll make a rum one of her; I'll commit a hard by murder before I go to bed." The injuries were described by Mr. Ballender, the surgeon, who was called upon to attend the deceased on the morning of the 24th of September, as of a very serious nature. The deceased stated to Mr. Ballender, that the injuries were not done to her by the prisoner, but caused by a fall, and this statement she made very soon after he was called in, be he gave it as his opinion that they could not have resulted from a fall. The immediate cause of her death, which took place at nine o'clock on the same morning, was haemorrhage, produced by the rupture of two arteries, one of which, however, the surgeon considered, could not have been injured by the external violence alleged to have been used towards the deceased. Mr. Allen addressed the jury on behalf of the prisoner. The learned Judge summed up, and after a short deliberation, the jury returned a verdict of manslaughter. The sentence was deferred."
London Morning Chronicle 20th December 1840

"At the Wolverhampton Police Court, on Monday, Mr. Ritson, a respectable farmer, living at Upper Gornal, appeared to answer to an information, preferred at the instance of the post-office authorities, charging him with refusing to pay the sum of eight pence, being the amount of the postage of an unpaid letter, posted at London, directed to Mr. Bitson at Gornal. Mrs. Maria Cartwright, post-mistress at Gornal, stated that she received the letter in the usual way on the 26th of August, and sent it by the letter-carrier, Mary Evans, to Mr. Ritson. Mary Evans said she took the letter to Mr. Ritson's house, and delivered it with another letter to Mr. Ritson's servant girl, who took it into the house. She [witness] waited at the door from five to ten minutes, when Mr. Ritson came to her and put the letter into her basket, saying she must take it back to Mrs. Cartwright, to send to the dead letter office. She [witness] did not know what was in the letter. lt was in a perfect state when she delivered it; not open as it is now. Ann Haycock, servant to Mr. Ritson, said she took in the letter, which looked very dirty, as if it had been carried in the pocket, and the corners had been worn a good deal. It was not more than two minutes before the letter was returned. Mr. Ritson. felt it in his hand; he did not break the seal, nor did he open it at all. To a question from the bench, whether Mr. Ritson attempted to open it, the witness answered more than once evasively. Mary Evans said that when Mr. Ritson returned the letter the end was opened, but not quite all the way. Mr. Ritson himself said one of the comers protruded, and he pushed it in with his thumb. Mr. Fleetwood, who appeared for the defendant, cross examined Mrs. Cartwright, for the purpose of showing that the letter had been written at Sedgley, or in its neighbourhood, and sent to London, and thence to Gornal, for the purpose of annoying Mr. Ritson. She said she thought the direction was written by the husband of a woman she knew, because she had received letters sent to him by his wife. They were now in London, but she knew nothing of the letter, nor had she spoken to the woman more than two or three times. The bench were of opinion that there had been an appropriation of the letter by Mr. Ritson, and directed the postage to be paid, and expenses, amounting in the whole to £1. 4s. 2d."
"Dear Postage" in
Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper 18th November 1849

"At the Petty Sessions on Saturday, before E. Best and J. N. Bagnall, Esqrs., John Southwell and Noah Bradley were charged with committing a rape on Sarah Baldwin, a servant at a public house in Gornal, where they had been drinking. As, however, it was an open question whether the prosecutrix had not been a consenting party in the one case, and not proved that the capital offence had been committed in the other, the graver charge was abandoned. The prisoners had, however, a month's seclusion, varied by rotatory exercise, for the minor offence of assault. Emma Edwards, a prostitute, charged with stealing £1. 6s. from the person of Timothy Nicholls, a butty collier, was committed for trial. Nicholls had gone with the prisoner on Saturday night to a disreputable house, where she is prima donna, and lost his money, as he deserved to do. William Meredith was charged with assaulting William Walker, a boy of five years, the son of a publican in Sedgley. The defendant had been drinking at the house of the boy's father, and being expelled for misconduct, had thrown a jug among some children, hitting the complainant a serene blow on the head. He was fined 10s. and costs, with the alternative of a month's imprisonment in default. Catherine Stamford was brought up on remand; charged with administering jalap to Charles Waldron, a clothes dealer, in his food. Waldron lodged at a house where Stamford is servant, and she had dosed his breakfast and dinner, putting him in bodily pain, not to speak of the inconvenience. She was ordered to find sureties."
"Bilston Magisterial" in
Birmingham Daily Post 28th February 1859

"At the Public Office, yesterday, Joseph Whitehouse, a labourer, living at Gornal, was summoned at the instance of the Overseers of Sedgley, to show cause why he should not maintain Ruth, his wife.  Mr. Bartlett appeared for the husband, and stated that the latter was willing to allow his wife 5s. per week to aid in supporting herself and her only child; but he would not live with her in consequence of her abandoned course of life. In proof of this latter statement Mr. Bartlett called several witnesses, who swore to having actually seen the woman commit adultery. On the contrary the woman strenuously asserted that the witnesses were committing perjury, that her husband courted her four years, that they had been married four years, and that she had never committed a breach of her marriage vow during the whole of the latter period. As, however, the witnesses called by Mr. Bartlett were all united in their testimony, Mr. Hipkins, one of the Sedgley Overseers, applied for an adjournment, in order to afford the woman an opportunity of bringing forward witnesses on her behalf. Mr. Fereday entertained the application, stating that the case bore a very important aspect, not so much from the effect of his decision on the question of maintenance, but from the fact that if the decision was in favour of the husband, a judicial separation would most probably take place. Upon these grounds the worthy Magistrate thought it would be best to adjourn the case. Mr. Bartlett had no objection to an adjournment, provided that the question of the extra costs thereby incurred could be satisfactorily settled by the Overseers agreeing to pay them if the decision went against them. Mr. Hipkins agreed to the proposition, and an adjournment till next Monday took place upon that condition."
"Charge of Refusing to Maintain a Wife" in
Birmingham Daily Post 5th April 1859

"A foot race of six score yards, for £10. a side, came off yesterday, at the Yew Tree Gardens, Wall Heath, between Adams's Novice, of Bilston, and Hughes, of Gornal, The excitement was beyond description, both parties being sanguine of success, The Novice was the favourite, 2 to 1 being laid on him by his division, which was freely taken, There were upwards of 1,500 persons present. At four o'clock both men toed the scratch, the Gornal man looking unfit. At the second attempt a good start was effected, Hughes getting the best of it about half a yard, which he maintained up to the fifth score, when the favourite challenged him, and a most exciting race ensued, the Novice winning on the post, after a splendid race, by a yard."
"Pedestrianism" in
Birmingham Daily Post 25th May 1859

"An enquiry into the death of the young woman, Mary Smith, daughter of Mr. William Smith, of Gornal Wood, shoemaker, who was found in Askey Bridge Pool, on Sunday week last, under strange circumstances, was held at the house of Joshua Cartwright, the White Chimney Inn, on Monday, before W. H. Phillips, Esq., Deputy-Coroner, and a respectable Jury, of which Mr. Thomas Timmins was the foreman. Esther Smith deposed: "I live with my father, William Smith, a shoemaker. My sister's age was eighteen years, and she lived at the house of Sarah Ann Hickman, a married woman, for the last nine months. On Saturday I was at work, and one of the men in the brickyard hinted that some Mary "had been up to it." I did not know it was our Mary. I met a little girl [Phoebe Marsh] and she said, "your Mary was with a married man last night." It so hurt me that I went to see her the same night. I asked her what she had been up to. She told me she had been in Dudley, and on returning, in going up Cooper's Bank, a man followed her. They stood talking together, and he wanted her to go down the lane. She refused, however, and he laid hold of her and took her down with him. On my saying, "Why, whatever brought you with a married man" she began to cry, and denied that he had taken liberties with her. She afterwards confessed that he had, but that she did not know he was a married man. She told me she was going off, and told me never to mind where. She did not say anything at all about destroying herself. When she left I went upstairs to make the bed. I thought that there would be something the matter. I could not rest, so I went up to Sarah Ann Hickman's, and she said had been there and gone away without taking any clothes with her. I saw a man who said he had met her on the road leading to Askey Bridge Pool. I thought she had gone to drown herself. We searched about until about half-past three o'clock on the Sunday morning, when she was taken out of Askey Bridge Pool. I do not know who the man is who is said to have been with her. I did not knew whether he kept company with her or not." Rosannah Peeler, sister of the above witness, deposed: "I am the wife of John Peeler, who is a puddler, and reside at the Fox Yards, in Sedgley parish. The deceased, Mary Smith, was my step-sister. I saw her on Friday week last. She told me that a man had offered to take her to America, and she said she would bring him for us to see him. I heard her threaten to destroy herself some months back. She made no complaint to me about the man. She appeared rather uneasy lately, But I do not know from what cause. This man kept company some time with her." Sarah Ann Hickman said: "I live at Gornal Wood, and the deceased has lived with me for some months. She was away on Friday last, learning the dressmaking. She came home and six o'clock, and then went to Dudley alone, I thought. She came home after twelve o'clock at night. I save her on the following morning, when she appeared as well as usual, and not at all distressed. I heard the neighbours say what she had been seen doing with Hyson the night before. Hyson is a brewer. I did not hear her contradict the rumour. About five on the Saturday she appeared low-spirited, but she said nothing to me about destroying herself. I thought, when she put her things on, about a quarter to ten, that she was going to meet him. She never went out that late before. She did not say she was going to meet him. She kissed my little girl, and she said she should never see us again. She had been in the habit of going out with Hyson, who passed as a Mr. Jones, and said he was a butty collier for about sixteen months. She told me she kept company with him, and talked about him at times. Hyson had promised to marry her several times, I know." Sarah Castree, wife of Thomas Castree, a boatman, under Mr. Foster of Stourbridge, deposed: "I was waiting under the bridge, at Swindon, for my husband, about twelve o'clock on the Saturday night. I saw a young woman, and heard her cry. She was standing just between the towing path and the road. I asked her if she was looking for her husband, and she said, "No." She told me she was waiting for nobody, but had had some unpleasant words with her sister, and was in trouble. She said she would get a place at Birmingham. We stood talking about a quarter of an hour. She went up the street to the left hand, and wished me good nigh. She would not tell me what was the matter. I gave her some advice as if I was her mother. Had I suspected that she meant to do anything to herself, I should have tried to prevent it. Dr. J. M. Ballenden, surgeon, of Sedgley, deposed that "he saw the body of the deceased at her father's house on Sunday week. He perceived marks on her right arm. They were finger marks and appeared to have been caused by violent grasping. There was a slight abrasion on the right elbow. He had made a post-mortem examination, and found every organ perfectly healthy and free from disease. Those marks must have been inflicted before her death. The marks were only external. His belief was that she died from suffocation from drowning. She was not in the family way as was the rumour." Esther Smith, recalled, said her sister declared that the man had held her by the arms vary hard, and she could not get away, and that he forced her down the road. She positively said site did not know who he was." James Marsh deposed: "I am a nailer, and live in Gornal Wood. Last Friday night week just below the National School I saw a man who is called William Hyson, who goes about brewing at public houses, have an improper connection with Mary Smith. She did not scream out. I, with two other men, went up to them. She then went home, and Hyson stopped with the other two men." The Jury, after conferring for about five minutes, returned a verdict that "deceased was found drowned, but from what cause there was no evidence to show, and that there was no suspicion attending it."
"The Late Suicide at Lower Gornal" in
Birmingham Daily Post 20 July 1859

"The investigation into the cause of the death of the boy Flavell, who died last Wednesday from the alleged effect of a dose of whiskey, was resumed at the Limerick Inn, Lower Gornal, on Tuesday. The medical evidence went to show that on a post-mortem examination being made, the brain was very soft and congested, and the left side of the lungs gorged with blood. In the stomach were large particles of inflammation, and it contained about three ounces of fluid, but no spirit. On opening the abdomen, it was found to be healthy, but the bladder was distended with clear urine. The Jury, after a short deliberation, returned a verdict in accordance with the evidence, which was, that the deceased died from taking about half a glass of whiskey and water. The gentlemen alluded to in our previous report were exonerated, but it was thought the father of the boy was blameable for not sending for medical aid sooner."
"The Lat Shocking Death of a Boy" in
Birmingham Daily Post 20th July 1859

"An inquest was held on Monday by Mr. Phillips, Deputy-Coroner, at the Bull's Head Inn, Lower Gornal, on the body of a man named John Carter. Deceased was taken out of the pool on Saturday, near the spot where Miss Smith was found, and his body found to be in an advanced state of decomposition. It was shown in evidence that Carter was forty-seven years of age, and that on leaving his home on Tuesday he remarked to his landlady that if did not return she would find his keys in a particular spot. He also gave directions, provided he did not return, for the disposal of his clothes, and his burial with the proceeds. He was seen again on the following night at a public house, but, until his body was found, no further tidings were heard of him. He had been recently in great distress, and that was the only reason assigned for the rash act. An open verdict was returned."
"Another Body found in the Askey Bridge Pool" in
Birmingham Daily Post 20th July 1859

"Johh Harris and Moses Russell were charged with feloniously assaulting Joseph Rollason, at Sedgley, on the 14th June, and stealing the sum of £30s., his property. Mr. Motteram prosecuted, and Mr. Kenealy defended the prisoners. The prosecutor deposed that on the evening of the day above-mentioned, about half-past nine o'clock, he was crossing some fields at Gornal when three men met him. Russell was one of them, and was the first to accost him, and demanded his money. He [the prosecutor] knocked the man down, when a second man, who was not in, custody, came up and struck prosecutor in the face. The prosecutor having knocked down his second assailant, Harris, the other prisoner, came up and kicked him in the back, threw him down, and knocked one of his teeth out. He [the prosecutor] was rendered insensible by the ill-usage he received, and when he recovered consciousness he found he had been robbed of three half-sovereigns. Police-constable Cole stated that on the 14th June, having heard of the robbery, he went and saw the prosecutor, and afterwards visited with him several public houses, in search of the persons who had perpetrated the robbery. When they got to Lower Gornal they met the prisoner Harris, and the prosecutor, on seeing him, exclaimed that that was one of the men who had robbed him. Harris protested against the charge, and said that he had no money about him, but on being searched a half-sovereign was found loose in his pocket amongst some coppers. Russell was apprehended at a subsequent date on a charge of fighting, and he was identified by the prosecutor. It was elicited in cross-examination that there were some discrepancies in the allegations made by the prosecutor to the police as to the dress worn by the prisoners at the time the offence was committed. The Jury acquitted the prisoners."
"Highway Robbery at Sedgley" in
Birmingham Daily Post 27th July 1859

"Yesterday morning. a terrible fire was discovered to have broken out on the premises of. Mr. Peter Greathead, a bellows manufacturer, at Upper Gornal. It was between one and two in the morning when the proprietor, whose residence nearly adjoins the workshops, was awoke by one of his workmen, who said he had been roused from his slumbers by the vivid light, and that on coming down stairs he found that the entire building was in flames. But for the fortunate discovery, the damage must have been, more fearful than what it is. But a little time had elapsed after the neighbours had been called up to assist in extinguishing it, before goodly help was on the spot. The efforts of those assembled were most painstaking and energetic to put it out, but it seems to have been a combat between them, for despite the continued torrent of water dashed over the fire from the engine of the Birmingham Fire Office, Dudley, together with the indomitable exertions of those present, the fire was not put out until about four hours after it was discovered. It burnt the whole contents. The floor and roofing fell in with a heavy crash, reducing the whole of the buildings into ruins. The places were well stored with bellows. But for the greatest perseverance, the houses next would have met the same result. The people had to be got out with the furniture as best they could be. They were fearful at one time that the flames would extend themselves to the large quantity of timber in the yard, close to the building, Mr. Thomas Guest, who keeps a pawnbroker's shop, thinking it might reach his premises, got a considerable portion of his goods out of the house. The damage done is considerable, involving a loss we understand of upwards of £400. in bellows alone. Unfortunately that precaution which is so needful in every case where a man has property, but more particularly so when surrounded by such a large quantity of ignitable materials, and amid a number of houses, and so necessarily at all times more or less subject to the fiery element, was not insured. It had been insured, but he had neglected to pay the last premium. The origin of the fire has not been traced out, nor can they so much as hazard a conjecture, as there has not been any fire in fire-places during the whole of the summer months and up to the present time. The men left work at seven o'clock on the previous night, when the places were all locked up by the master himself."
"Shocking Fire at Upper Gornal" in
Birmingham Daily Post 12th August 1859.

List of Pubs
Black Bear
Bricklayers' Arms
Britannia Inn
Bull and Butcher
Bull's Head Inn
Bush Inn
Chapel House Inn
Cottage of Content
Cottage Spring
Cross Keys Inn
Duke William
Durham Ox
Exhibition Inn
Fiddler's Arms
Five Ways
Five Ways Inn
Forge Inn
Fountain Inn
Good Intent
Green Dragon Inn
Horse and Jockey
Jolly Crispin
Limerick Inn
Lion Inn
Miners' Arms
Miners' Arms
New Inn
New Inn
Old Bull's Head
Old Mill
Painters' Arms
Pear Tree
Pied Bull
Pig On The Wall
Prince Albert
Queen's Head
Queen's Head Inn
Red Cow
Red Lion
Rose and Crown
Royal Oak
Spills Meadow
Spring Cottage
Straits House
Streights Green
Swan Inn
Three Furnaces
Three Horseshoes
Traveller's Rest
Waggon and Horses
White Chimneys
White Lion Inn
Woodman Inn

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Newspaper Articles
"The Right Honourable Lord Ward attained his majority on Tuesday, and the festivities on the occasion were of a very general and splendid description. His lordship laid the first stone of the new church at Upper Gornal at two o'clock, and a large party of nobility, gentry and clergy afterward dined at Himley."
Wolverhampton Chronicle 31st March 1838

"George Mills, a miner in Timmins's Colliery, Gornal Wood, was at work at the bottom of the pit, doing repairs to the shaft, and on the skip ascending, loaded with ironstone, a piece fell and caught the poor fellow on the head, causing a severe fracture of the skull; from which he lingered from Saturday last until Tuesday, when he died, leaving a widow and eight children to deplore his loss."
"Pit Accident" in
Staffordshire Examiner 14th October 1839

Ansell's - The Better Beer

"On Monday last an inquest was held by T. M. Phillips, Esq., coroner, at the Green Dragon, Upper Gornal, on the body of Thomas Oakley, a boy thirteen years of age, employed at a stone pit at the Deepdale colliery, belonging to Mr. B. Gibbons, jun. It appeared from the evidence of William Bradley, another boy employed in the same pit, that the deceased had several times taken hold of the skip all it was ascending the shaft, and dropped from it when it was a few yards up. On Thursday last he was at work filling a skip, and when it was drawn up laid hold of it, and continued hanging from it until the skip was within a few yards of the top of the pit; he then let go, and fell with great violence to the bottom of the pit, about thirty-seven yards. One of this thighs was broken, and he was otherwise so much injured that when he was taken up he was dead. Verdict, "Accidental Death."
"Caution to Miners" in
Northern Star 25th October 1851

"An inquest was held on Thursday, at the White Chimneys, Gornal Wood, Sedgley, before W. H. Phillips, deputy-coroner, on the body of Mr. William Hicklin, a chemist and druggist, at Gornal, and who came by his death under the following extraordinary circumstances:- A witness named Benjamin Hicklin, stated that, on Tuesday, about two o'clock, the deceased came on the bank of the Red Hall pit, rather intoxicated, and, going to the hovel, drank some beer out of the pit bottles, He turned to go away, and immediately afterwards witness lost sight of him. Seeing the rope shake, he went and looked down the shaft, and saw deceased about ten yards down, lowering himself down by rope. He directly afterwards lost his hold, and fell to the bottom of the shaft, where his body was found lifeless. It appears that the deceased was a powerful man, and took pride in performing the feat of lowering himself down pit shafts by the ropes. On the present occasion it is supposed that the deceased lost his hold in consequence of his inebriated condition. Verdict, "Accidental death."
"Death By Falling Down a Pit" in
Wolverhampton Chronicle 17th March 1855

"On Saturday evening the dwelling house of William Hill, retail brewer, near Upper Gornal, was entered by the bed room window, and about £12, in gold and silver, one gold ring, and a silver lever watch and chain attached, stolen. There are already two men in custody on suspicion of being concerned in the robbery, but the property has not been found. They will be brought before the Magistrates tomorrow. During the previous night there was stolen from a cottage, being erected near the Park Hall, about 70lbs, of lead spouting, the property of Lord Ward. The thieves are still at large."
"A Series of Robberies" in
Birmingham Daily Post 14th December 1857

Ansell's - Ah! The Better Ale

"William Brookes, a resident of the Mamble, was charged, on Monday, with robbing and assaulting William Bishop, a butcher, of Lower Gornal, on Wednesday, the 20th instant. The prosecutor was in Dudley on that day and left with a man named W. Beddard, at a quarter before ten o'clock, and proceeded homewards. When a mile on the road three men jumped out of the hedge, one of whom seized Bishop by the throat, and another struck him. They then knocked him down and kicked him. When down he felt a hand in his pockets, and after they had done this they again kicked the prosecutor, one of them exclaiming, "damn his bloody eyes, let's finish him." They again maltreated the prosecutor, and then left him on the ground. He missed 26s. and a knife from his pocket. The prosecutor gave Sergeant Davies a description of the three men, and he apprehended the prisoner on Saturday evening. The prosecutor identified him, but the case was remanded."
"Another Highway Robbery" in
Birmingham Daily Post 27th January 1858

"William Brookes, fire-iron polisher, was indicted for assaulting and robbing William Bishop, of 26s., near Dudley, on the 20th January, Mr. Sawyer was for the prosecution, and Mr. Kenealy defended the prisoner. The prosecutor deposed that he was a butcher, and lived at Lower Gornal. On the night of the 20th January he started from Dudley about a quarter to ten o'clock, to return home. A man named Bennett was with him. When they had got to Baggaley's Lane, about a mile out of Dudley, three men sprang out of the hedge at them. One of the men took hold of prosecutor by the throat from behind, and throttled him; one of the others then knocked him down. While he was on the ground someone rifled his pockets, and stole a knife and 26s. Prosecutor would swear that the prisoner was the man who struck him. During the time he was on the ground prosecutor was kicked very badly. William Bennett, the person who was with the prosecutor on the night named, next gave evidence in corroboration of the prosecutor's testimony, as far as he could remember, for he was immediately knocked down and rendered senseless on the road. Police-sergeant Davies, of Dudley, stated that he took the prisoner into custody on the Saturday following the robbery, from a description given by the prosecutor. Witness charged prisoner with the robbery, and he said that on the day named he was at Harper's beer house from three in the afternoon till two o'clock next morning. This witness was cross-examined and said that a man named Patsy, who was said to bear a striking resemblance to the prisoner, had absconded immediately after the robbery. For the defence an alibi was attempted to be set up, and two witnesses, named Thomas Clarke and John Moore, were called in support. They stated that the prisoner was playing at cards at Harper's beer house, at the time the robbery was alleged to have been committed. His Lordship put it to the Jury whether they believed the latter testimony, or that of the prosecutor, who was positive as to the prisoner's identity. The Jury returned a verdict of guilty; and a former conviction was also proved against the prisoner. The learned Judge, in passing sentence, said it was really frightful to see so large an amount of crime from the neighbourhood of Dudley, and a stop must somehow be put to it. The prisoner was sentenced to six years' penal servitude."
"Highway Robbery near Dudley" in
Birmingham Daily Post 15th March 1858

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"At the Police Court, on Saturday last, before the Mayor, H. S. Cartwright, and J. Underhill, Esq., a rough rodney-looking chap, named Philip Smith, a nailer, from Gornal, was charged with assaulting his wife Matilda. The prisoner admitted that he had done so, but not till after she had "dropped on" him, and given him the black eye that now adorned his visage. Mrs. Smith, on being asked what she had to say, said: "Me and him have made it up together, and he says he won't do it no more." The Mayor asked if he had ever done so before. Mrs, Smith rejoined, "Well, if we have made it up together I don't suppose that makes any matter - he's forgiven me, and I've forgiven him." Mr. Owen: "Well, then, if you pay the costs, I'll forgive you, too." Mrs. Smith: "Then you'll please to wait a little, and I'll leave him here in your charge until I bring it." Mr. Smith was accordingly accommodated with a seat whilst Mrs. Smith went for the money."
"Putting a Husband in Pawn" in
Birmingham Daily Post 8h November 1858

"On Friday last, at the Police Court, before E. Best and J. N. Bagnall, Esq., Henry Harker, remanded on Tuesday on a charge of stealing five rabbits, was again brought up. Matthew Marsh, of Gornal Wood identified the rabbits as his property, and stated that his brewhouse had been broken into, and the animals stolen, on the night before they were found in the prisoners' possession. Harker was sentenced to a month's imprisonment, with hard labour."
"Stealing Rabbits" in
Birmingham Daily Post 8th November 1858

"To the long-livers is to be added another, named Catherine Dudley. Her age was 102, and she died last Monday, at Upper Gornal. It is said that she never had, until recently, what she called "a day's badness." Her career was a notable one. A. native of the Potteries, she came to reside in this neigbourhood forty-five years since, and has continued to live here ever since. She was generally known as "The Bear Woman," from the fact, of her having for a number of years kept a bear, which she took from wake to wake for the purpose of being baited. It is probably known but to few that, in the contest for the representation of Dudley, in 1834, between the now Lord Chief Justice Campbell and the late Thomas Hakes, Esq., Mrs. Dudley figured conspicuously. With a string of blue ribbon circled round her jackdaw's neck, she paraded the streets, and, when asked what it meant, with a mock courtesy would pertly reply, "Sir John Campbell, sir." She presented a game cock at the same election to Thomas Hawkes, Esq., who testified his approval by carrying it under his arm. She is reputed to have "set" her bear on a policeman with painful consequences. She had a numerous family of children, but outlived them all."
"Death of a Centenarian" in
Birmingham Daily Post 27th December 1859

1950 Advertisement for Mitchell's & Butler's

"An entrance was effected into the fowl pen of Mr. Stephen Wilkes, nail factor, on Thursday night, and five fowls taken therefrom. On the same night a shop belonging to Abraham Fellows, Lower Gornal, was stripped of the lead. A leaden pump belonging to William Williams, Ruiton, was likewise torn up and stolen the same evening."
"Three Robberies in One Night" in
Birmingham Daily Post 27th December 1859

"At the Public Office, on Friday, before E. Best and J. N. Bagnall, Esqrs., Samuel Meredith, a resident at Gornal, was charged with stealing a basket, belonging to Mary Mitchell, of the same place, containing such a heterogeneous assortment as the baskets of old women returning from market usually do. Meredith had been sitting, on Wednesday last, in a public house into which the old lady dropped for a toothful of stuff, and seizing his opportunity, made off with her basket, hiding it in a box in his house, where it was afterwards found by a policeman. The prisoner pleaded guilty, was summarily convicted, and sentenced to twenty-one days' imprisonment."
"Stealing a Basket and its Contents" in
Birmingham Daily Post 24th January 1859

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"At the Police Court, on Friday, Patrick Kilgerran of Gornal, was fined 40s. and costs, with the alternative of two months' imprisonment, for cruelty to a horse, by working it with bad wounds on its shoulders and back. Kilgerran has been twice convicted of similar offences."
"Cruelty to a Horse" in
Birmingham Daily Post 24th January 1859

"On Friday last, a young blackguard from Gornal, named Uriah Williams, was committed to prison for a month, for a gross outrage of indecent exposure."
"Indecent Exposure" in
Birmingham Daily Post 24th January 1859

1950's Playing Card issued by William Butler's

"At the Petty Sessions yesterday, a big fellow, named James Hale, was charged with a violent assault upon Police-constables Stockley and Henealey, at Mottram on the previous night. The defendant and a number of others, came from Gornal, and had been drinking and rioting through the district. The constables followed them with the view of preventing mischief; but Stockley was knocked down with a brick, and Henealey ducked, and, as he said, "nearly drownded" in the canal. The Bench inflicted a fine of 40s. and costs in each case, with the usual alternative."
"Assaulting the Police" in
Birmingham Daily Post 17th February 1859

"At the Petty Sessions on Tuesday, two youths named Zachariah Guest and Aaron Hale, were charged with a criminal assault upon Sophia Guest, at Gornal, on Saturday night week. The complainant stated that she was going home on the night in question, and met the prisoners. They threw her down, and while one held her there, and placed his hand over her mouth, the other attempted, and nearly succeeded in committing the capital offence. A young woman, however coming up, the prisoners released the complainant, and ran off. They were sentenced to three months' imprisonment each, with hard labour."
"Assault with Intent" in
Birmingham Daily Post 17th February 1859

Mitchell's and Butler's Special Ale

"At the Petty Sessions, on Friday, E. Best and J. N. Bagnaill, Esqrs., presiding, Edward Franklin, who bad been remanded on a charge of stealing a jacket from the person with whom he lodged, was committed for trial at the Sessions. Alfred Willmore and Edward Pugh, young men but old offenders, were charged with stealing brasses from the Spring Vale Works, on the previous Wednesday evening. They were taken up on suspicion by some of the workmen, and next day Police-sergeant Heath found the brasses hid near the spot, together with a spanner which had been used to remove the brasses from the engine. The prisoners were committed for trial at the Sessions. Thomas Foley, charged with an unnatural offence at Coseley, was committed to the Assizes. Joseph Roberts was convicted of taking part in the assault upon two policemen, at Gornal, the particulars of which were given last week, and fine 20s. and cost. He was sent to prison for a month in default. John Pritchard was charged with assaulting an old woman, at Daisy Bank, on the preceding Thursday night, knocking her down and rendering her insensible. He also knocked down the officer who apprehended him. For the first offence he was fined 20s., or a month's imprisonment; for the latter, a similar money penalty was imposed, with a month's imprisonment in each case in default of payment."
"Bilston Magisterial" in
Birmingham Daily Post 21st February 1859

Worthington's Pale Ale in a Bottle

"At the Petty Sessions on Friday, before the Rev. H. S. Fletcher and J. N. Bagnall, Esq., Reuben Naylor, collier, Gornal, was convicted of an aggravated assault on his wife on the previous day, and sentenced to a month's imprisonment with hard labour."
Birmingham Daily Post 31st October 1859

"A daring highway robbery and murderous assault was perpetrated on Saturday night, on the road leading from Tipton to Sedgley. Edward Naylor, a miner, of Upper Gornal, had been to receive his weekly earnings at Tipton, and was returning homeward about twelve o'clock, but when near the toll gate at Littleworth he was stopped by two men, who, having secured all the money he possessed [two half crowns], proceeded to violently ill-use him. He besought them to desist, and began crying,  "Murder, murder," but, although in close proximity to a cluster of houses, no one came to his rescue. He was kicked by the "hob-nailed" shoes of his assailants, until his ribs were covered with bruises. He also sustained two wounds on the right temple, two cuts above his eyebrows, and several other injuries about his face. He implored them not to murder him, and cried out, "Will, don't kill me." Police-constable Cole describes Naylor as being, when he saw him, in a most shocking state, blood flowing from him, and his clothes being bedaubed with it. Naylor, it appears, knew "Will," who is William Porter, a reputed "bad character," residing likewise at Upper Gornal, and working for the same master at Tipton; and having so informed Police-constable Cole, he was apprehended while in bed on the Sunday morning. He said he knew nothing about it, but subsequently confessed to taking an inoffensive part in the matter, saying that he only held him. Edward Harris, a miner of Coseley, was the other ruffian, and both are now safe in Bilston lock-up, and will be brought before the Magistrates today."
"Murderous Assault and Highway Robbery" in
Birmingham Daily Post 8th November 1859

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1860 Post Office Directory
Upper and Lower Gornal are villages of Sedgley, about 2 miles north-west of Dudley, and 1 from Sedgley, the district church at Upper Gornal is dedicated to St. Peter; the incumbent is the Rev. Ralph Wilde, B.A., and the vicar of the parish is patron; date of register, 1844. The living is a perpetual curacy, annual value £145, with residence; that at Lower Gornal is in the patronage of Earl Dudley and incumbency of the Rev. James Y. Rooker, a perpetual curacy, annual value £129. In Upper Gornal is a Wesleyan and an Independent chapel; in Lower Gornal, Methodist and Primitive Methodist chapels, and in Gornal Wood a Wesleyan chapel and a New Connexion Wesleyan Methodist chapel. Here are National, British, and Infant schools. The locality abounds in fire clay, which is wrought into bricks and other fire goods, giving employment to a large number of hands; the principal manufacturers are B. Gibbons, Jun., of Lower, and E. P. Cartwright of Upper Gornal. Here are also several collieries, nail, chain, fire-iron, and bellows manufactories and malthouses.
Gornal Wood
Burrows William, jun. Esq. Straits
Abbiss James, shopkeeper
Addenbrooke Caleb, flour seller
Barnett Charles Horatio, grocer
Bassett William, linen draper
Bate Edward, shopkeeper
Beddard John, farmer, Straits
Bradley William, farmer
Brooks John, beer retailer, Straits
Bunch Thomas Gordon, beer retailer
and maltster
Burrows John, shopkeeper
Clark Samuel, fruiterer
Corvesor William, grocer
Fellows John, Bush
Fellows John, shoemaker
Fisher Josiah, Fiddler's Arms
Guest Cornelius, beer retailer
Hickman Ann [Mrs.], shopkeeper
Hickman Isaac, shopkeeper
Hickman Joseph, cart owner
Horton Maria [Mrs.], shopkeeper
Hughes Hannah, Bull's Head & butcher
Hughes Herbert, contractor
Hughes Isaac, Limerick
Hughes John, land and mine surveyor
Hughes William, Woodman Inn
and engineer & contractor
Jones Joseph, shopkeeper
Malpas Thomas, shopkeeper
Marsh John, beer retailer & shopkeeper
Marsh Joseph, shopkeeper
Marsh Richard, beer retailer
Marsh, William, nailers' tool maker
Meredith Francis, butcher
Oakley Richard, grocer & druggist
Parkes Aaron, shopkeeper
Payton Richard, chain maker
Payton Thomas, shopkeeper
Smith Benj. beer retailer, Straits Green
Short George, beer retailer
Smith Henry, farmer, Straits
Turner Sargant, butcher & shopkeeper
Upstone James, hosier
Wasdell Joseph, grocer
Wilkes Abel, tailor
Lower Gornal
Rooker Rev. James Yates [incumbent]
Addenbrooke Thomas, shopkeeper
Bennett Ephraim, clock & watch maker
Bradley Eli, shopkeeper
Brecknall Hannah [Mrs.], Red Cow
Cartwright Edward Parkes, jun. firebrick
maker & maltster
Cartwright Joshua, White Chimneys
Clark John, fishmonger
Clark William, beer retailer
Fellows Thomas, farmer
Fereday Edward, miller
Field George, baker
Fisher Isaac, beer retailer
Gibbons Benjamin, jun. & Co. firebrick
makers, Deepdale works
Gilbert Joseph, Cross Keys
Grafton Sarah [Miss], stationer
Guest Edward Francis, butcher
Guest Edward Thomas, beer retailer
Guest Henry, Old Bull's Head
Guest Henry Francis, beer retailer
Guest Zachariah, Horse & Jockey
Hjcken Philip, surgeon
Hickman John, timber dealer
Hughes Herbert, linen draper
Hyde Caroline, Waggon & Horses
Jeavon Benjamin, Five Ways
Law Joseph, Pied Bull, & farmer
Lees Ambrose, bee retailer
Marsh Isaac, beer retailer
Marsh James, baker
Marsh Manoah, shopkeeper
Naylor Isaac, commission, agent
Oakley Edward, tailor
Oakley William, tallow chandler
Parkes William Henry, plumber, glazier
and painter
Stanley Sarah Ann [Mrs.], shopkeeper
Turner Dinah [Mrs.], shopkeeper
Upper Gornal
Bates Mr. James
Bradley Mrs.
Brown Mr.
Cartwright Edward Parkes, Esq.
Coombes Rev. Samuel Merriman [Independent]
Green Mr. Henry
Guest Thomas, Esq. the Quarries
Tompson Charles Augustus James, Esq.
Tompson Mr. George S. Spring Cottage
Ward Mr. Daniel G.
Wilde Rev. Ralph, B.A.
Incumbent of St. Peter's Church
Ashcroft John, wheelwright & blacksmith
Aston John, grocer
Bennett Thomas, shopkeeper
Boddenham Edward, wheelwright
Bradley Thomas, shopkeeper
Bytheway Jno. colliery apt. & postmaster
Cartwright Edward Parkes, sen. proprietor
of Upper Gornal fire clay, fire bricks
and ironstone works
Cartwright John, farmer
Cartwright Richard, Green Dragon
Cartwright Joseph Round, maltster
and Hop Merchant
Cartwright Thos. Horseshoe, & maltster
Caswell Benjamin, shopkeeper
Clarke Joseph, furniture dealer
Collins John, Old Horse and Jockey
Collins Thomas, butcher
Count Henry, boot & shoe maker
Darbey Mary, boot & shoe warehouse
Davies Elizabeth [Mrs.], shopkeeper
Davies John, shoe warehouse
Davies John, jun. druggist
Davies John, jun. master of British School
Davies William, boot &shoe maker
Elwell Edward, spade & shovel maker
Gingell Alexander, boot & shoe maker
Greathead Peter, bellows maker
and shopkeeper
Guest James. plumber, glazier and
beer retailer
Guest Thomas, beer retailer
Hall John & Son, nail/chain manufacturers
Hall Joseph, iron master
Hall Sarah, mistress of Infant School
Hancox Esther, draper and milliner
Harcourt Thomas, grocer
Harlowe Maria, mistress National School
Hartland Joseph, Three Furnaces
and Bricklayer
Hartland Charles, builder
Heath Thomas Webb, beer retailer
Hill Hannah [Mrs.], stonemason
Hill William, Vine
Hughes Rowland, Limerick, & butcher
Hyde John, beer retailer
Hyde John, jun. beer ret/shopkeeper
Ivens Thomas, linen draper
Jenkins Joseph Hartvright, hairdresser,
& agent to East of England and
European life offices
Johnson Daniel, Crown
Jones Edward, shopkeeper
Jukes Hannah [Mrs.], Britannia
Law William, White Lion, & farmer
Leek John, Cottage of Content
Lees William, shopkeeper
Marsh Daniel, Bull and Butcher
Marsh Jeremiah, cooper
Marsh John, shopkeeper
Maxfield William, hammer maker
Meanley Elisha, Jolly Crispin
Meredith William, shopkeeper
Mills William, fire-iron maker
Moorhouse Saml. master of National School
Morris William, locksmith
Nichols Benjamin, beer retailer
Nichols Samuel, cart owner
Nichols William, cart owner
Oakley William, shopkeeper
Page Thomas, beer retailer
Parker Jeremiah, Queen's Head
and butcher
Parker John, grocer, maltster
and tallow chandler
Parker John, stone merchant
and shopkeeper
Peacock Henry, draper
Peacock John, Miners' Arms
and builder
Perrey James, butcher & shopkeeper
Pugh James, shopkeeper
Raybould Thomas, shopkeeper
Ritson James, land & mine surveyor
Ritson Jane [Mrs.], farmer
Rollason John, stonemason
Round Zephaniah, butcher
Saunders Rachael, preparatory school
Smith William, butcher
Stanton Samuel Lear, Leopard
Taylor William, Prince Albert
Thompson Isaac, farmer
Thompson Paul, miller
Tompson Charles Augustus Jas. surgeon
Tompson George S. & William H. stone merchants
Turiey Thomas, farmer
Waterfield William, mine agent
Webb Hannah [Mrs.], beer retailer
Webb Thomas Heath, beer retailer
Wellings Joseph, blacksmith
Westwood John, tobacconist
Williams Edward, Duke William
Williams Henry, stone merchant
Williams Isaac, shopkeeper
Williams Joseph, butcher
Williams Joseph, shopkeeper
Williams William, nail factor
Wolverson Caroline [Miss], linen draper
Wood William Chrysostom, grocer

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