History of Derbyshire.

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Derbyshire Places

Derbyshire

Map of Derbyshire by John Cary in his "New and Correct English Atlas" [1787]

The county was first recorded in 1049 however it was formerly known as Northworthy but was renamed by the Danes because of the large concentration of deer in the region. The name of Derby comes from the Danish 'deoraby' meaning 'the place of the deer.' Derbyshire is bordered by the West Riding of Yorkshire in the north, Leicestershire to the south, Staffordshire to the west and south, Nottinghamshire in the east and Cheshire to the north-west. Hills dominate the region and rise to The Peak at 2086ft.

Derbyshire is drained by the Derwent, Dove, Wye and Trent rivers. There are several spectacular waterfalls in the county. With a drop of 400feet, the highest is Kinder Downfall on Kinder Scout. The Pennine Way starts in Derbyshire at Edale in the Hope Valley. Also in this part of the county are a series of vast limestone caverns which are popular with serious pot-holers and tourists alike. South Derbyshire is less rugged than the Dales and the Peak District further north but is fine walking country.

Traces of early settlement have been found in many parts of the county, particularly around the many iron-age hill forts. However, it was around the 7th century that English settlers arrived in the region and became known as Pec-setan, or Peak Dwellers. The district formed part of the great kingdom of Mercia and later, on arrival of the Danes in the 9th century, Derby was included in Danelaw, the confederacy of Lincoln, Leicester, Stamford, Nottingham and Derby. The earliest important Norman imprint on the county was at Castleton where William de Peveril, the son of William the Conqueror, built Peak Castle. The castle's imposing keep was erected much later by Henry II in 1176.

Robert de Ferrers, Earl of Derby, fought on the side of the Barons against Henry III. Mary Queen of Scots was held prisoner at Chatsworth and Wingfield Manor. She also visited Buxton for her health. William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire, was one of the Immortal Seven who invited William of Orange to England. The Earl and his conspirators used to meet in the 'Plotting Parlours' of an inn on Whittington Moor. Dr. Sacheverell preached his famous assize sermon in Derby in 1710 attacking the Whig government with such rancour that he was impeached. In 1745, the Young Pretender, Charles Edward Stuart, was proclaimed King in Derby.

Much of Derbyshire was involved in the pioneering days of the industrial revolution and Derby, Belper and Duffield became famous for the manufacture of silk. Derbyshire has some of the most famous landmarks and includes The Peak District, The Pennines, The Derbyshire Dales, Black Rock, Kinder Scout, Mam Tor, High Tor, Creswell Crags, Dove Dale and, of course, its world-famous caverns.


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Derbyshire in Trade Directories
From The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland [1868]

"Derbyshire, a midland county, lying to the north of the River Trent, is bounded on the north-east by the West Riding of Yorkshire, from which it is partly separated by the rivers Derwent, Rother, and Sheaf; on the east by Nottinghamshire, from which it is separated by the Erewash; on the south-east by Leicestershire, from which it is partly separated by the Trent; on the south-west by Staffordshire, from which it is separated by the Dove and Trent; on the west by Staffordshire and Cheshire, from the former of which it is separated by the Dove, and from the latter by the Goyt; and on the north-west by Cheshire, from which it is here separated by the Etherow.

In form it is irregular, the northern part being broad, and the southern part narrow. Its extreme length from north to south is 56 miles, its extreme breadth from east to west 34 miles, and its area 1,029 square miles, or 658,803 statute acres. A small portion of Derbyshire near the southern extremity is detached from the main part of the county, being shut in between Warwickshire, Leicestershire, and Staffordshire. The population of Derbyshire in 1861 was 339,327, against 296,084 in 1851, showing an increase of 43,243, or at the rate of 15 per cent., during the ten years. Since 1801 it has more than doubled. In 1861 the number of inhabited houses was 69,262, and of uninhabited, 3,436.

Before the conquest of Britain by the Romans, Derbyshire formed part of the territory of the Coretani, and was afterwards included in the Roman province Flavia Cæsariensis. During the Saxon period Derbyshire was comprehended in the kingdom of Mercia, and at Repton on the Trent the Saxon kings had a residence. In the reigns of Ethelred and Alfred, Derbyshire was the scene of frequent contests between the Saxons and the Danes, the latter long held possession of the town of Derby.

William the Conqueror made considerable grants of land within the county to Henry de Ferrers, whose son he created Earl de Ferrers, and his grandson Earl of Derby. William Peverel, a natural son of William the Conqueror, also received extensive grants of land, and to him is attributed the building of the Peak and Bolsover castles. Richard I. deprived the Earl of Ferrers of the title and possessions of the earldom of Derby, and bestowed them on his own brother, John. After the latter ascended the throne, the earldom of Derby was restored to the Earl de Ferrers. In the insurrection of the barons against Henry III., the Earl of Ferrers and Derby took a very active part, but having been taken prisoner at Chesterfield, his estates were confiscated, and, along with the title of Earl of Derby, were bestowed upon Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, son of Henry III.

From this period the earldom of Derby long remained united with that of Lancaster, Edmund was succeeded in the earldom of Derby and Lancaster by his son Thomas, who, on the failure of the insurrection against Gaveston and Le Despenser, the favourites of Edward II., was taken prisoner and executed. Thomas was succeeded by his brother Henry, and Henry was succeeded by his son Henry - that Earl of Derby who commanded the English army in Guienne. On the death of the latter, the earldom of Derby and Lancaster fell to John of Gaunt, who had married Henry's daughter Blanch. John of Gaunt was succeeded by his son Henry, afterwards Henry IV. Henry VII. conferred the title of Earl of Derby on his supporter, Lord Stanley, in whose family it has ever since continued.

In the early part of 1642, Derbyshire was held by the royalists; but in the October of that year Sir John Gell entered the county with a small body of infantry, and having received reinforcements, attacked and captured several of the royalist strongholds, and defeated the King's army at Swarkestone Bridge. In 1643 he reduced Bolsover Castle, which was commanded by the Earl of Newcastle. The royalists afterwards regained possession of the northern part of the county. In 1644 a battle was fought at Egginton Heath. In his march into Yorkshire after the battle of Naseby, the King gained some advantages over Sir John Gell.

The northern part of Derbyshire, which is called the Peak, is very elevated; the southern part is in general flat. The scenery of the Peak, consisting of elevated moorlands, intersected by deep, well-wooded valleys, is very varied and beautiful. The principal heights of this district are Blakelow Stones, 1,800 feet high; Kinderscout, nearly as high; Axe Edge, at the head of the Dove, 1,758 feet high; Lord's Seat and Mam Tor, 1,751 feet.

These hills are mostly bleak and barren, affording scanty pasture to large numbers of sheep. A lateral ridge runs between the basins of the Dove and the Derwent. A branch of the Pennine range, which leaves the main ridge in Yorkshire and runs along the boundary of Yorkshire and Derbyshire, crosses Derbyshire in a south-easterly direction, and forms the eastern boundary of the basin of the Derwent. Of this range the principal elevations are Oxstones, 1,377 feet high, and Aport or Orpit Hill, 980 feet.

The principal rivers of Derbyshire are the Trent, Derwent, Dove, Erewash, Mease, Goyt, Sheaf, and Rother. The Trent, after flowing north for 10 miles, along the border of Derbyshire and Staffordshire, enters the former county below Burton-on-Trent, runs east for 11 miles through Derbyshire, then flows north-east for 10 miles, along the borders of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, and Nottinghamshire, till it joins the Erewash, when it leaves Derbyshire altogether. The length of its course along and within the border of Derbyshire is 31 miles.

About three-fourths of the entire county are drained by the Trent. The Trent is navigable as far as Burton; since 1805, however, by agreement with the Trent and Mersey Canal Company, the Trent has not been used for purposes of navigation above its junction with the Derwent. The Derwent rises on the borders of Derbyshire and Yorkshire, flows south through Chatsworth Park, by Matlock, Cromford, Belper, and Derby, then east into the Trent. Its principal tributaries are the Westend river, Ashop, Noe, Wye [which rises near Axe Edge and flows south-east by Bakewell], Ambergate, and Ecclesburn; its entire course is about 60 miles.

The scenery of the Derwent is in many parts remarkably beautiful. This river was some years ago made navigable as far as Derby, but has since been superseded by the Derby canal. The Dove rises on the slope of Axe Edge, flows south by Longnor and Ashbourne into the Trent below Burton-on-Trent. It forms the boundary between Derbyshire and Staffordshire. Its chief tributaries are the Manifold and Churnet from Staffordshire; its course is about 45 miles.

The scenery of the valley of the Dove, especially of that part called "Dove Dale", is unsurpassed by that of any other English river. Its waters are very clear and of a bluish tint. In spring the Dove frequently overflows its banks. The Erewash rises in Nottinghamshire, enters Derbyshire 3 miles from its source, and flows south into the Trent; its course is about 20 miles. The Mease rises in Leicestershire, and flows into the Trent its course is about 20 miles. The Goyt rises near Axe Edge, flows north-west till it joins the Etherow; the united streams then flow south-west into the Mersey at Stockport. The Rother rises near Chatsworth Park, flows east to Chesterfield, then flows north-east till it enters Yorkshire. The Sheaf rises in Derbyshire and joins the Dove at Sheffield.

Derbyshire is well supplied with canals. The Trent and Mersey canal begins at Wilden Ferry, and runs through Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and Cheshire; its length is 93 miles. The Derby canal connects Derby with the Grand Trunk and Erewash canals. The Erewash canal commences in the Trent, runs along the valley of the Erewash, and joins the Cromford canal. The Cromford canal commences at Langley Bridge, and runs past Codnor, whence it has a branch to Pinxton, along the valley of the Derwent to Cromford Bridge. The Nutbrook canal is a branch of the Erewash canal, commencing near Shipley. The Chesterfield canal commences at Chesterfield, follows the valley of the Rother, and joins the Trent below Gainsborough; its length is 46 miles, 12 only of which are in Derbyshire, the remainder being in Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire.

Notwithstanding the hilly character of Derbyshire, it is intersected by several important lines of railway. The Midland railway connects Derby with Chesterfield and the north, from which line a branch, passing through most beautiful scenery in the valley of Wye, was opened to Buxton in 1863. The Birmingham and Derby Junction runs in a south-western direction from Derby to Egginton, where it quits the county; the Midland by one section connects Derby with Burton, and by another with Loughborough, Leicester, and Rugby; the North Staffordshire line connects Derby with Macclesfield, and has a branch to Ashbourne. Mention ought also to be made of the Cromford and High Peak railway, which although only intended for the conveyance of minerals and merchandise, is interesting as having been commenced as far back as 1825, and opened for traffic in 1830, rising upwards of 990 feet in 33 miles. It was worked by fixed engines and horses, but is now superseded by the Buxton line.

The climate of Derbyshire varies according to the elevation of the land. In the north, where it is hilly, the annual rainfall is very large; in the lowlands it is about the same as in the surrounding counties. The soil of the mountainous parts is barren, whilst that of the lowlands is highly productive. Derbyshire, to the south of Ashbourne, Duffield, and Sandiacre, belongs to the New Red sandstone or red marl formation.

In the red sandstone near Darley Abbey, gypsum is quarried and used by the potters of Staffordshire for moulds, etc. The new magnesian or conglomerate limestone occupies the eastern part of the county. Underlying the magnesian limestone are the coal measures. The principal coal mining districts are about Chesterfield and Alfreton, between Ashbourne and Derby. There are also some coal mines at Ashby-de-la-Zouch, on the borders of Leicestershire. In the coal district, ironstone is found. Carboniferous limestone occupies the centre of the county, and is quarried as marble. In this formation china stone and fluor-spar are found.

Where the carboniferous limestone crops out are the lead mines, from which about 4,500 tons of lead are obtained yearly. Millstone grit occupies a tract between Duffield, Belper, and Wirksworth, and extends to the northern border. There are numerous limestone caverns in Derbyshire, the most remarkable being the Devil's Cavern, 2,700 feet long; Eldon Hole, 180 feet deep, near Castleton; and the Bagshaw Grottoes, 2,000 feet long, containing stalactites., There are warm springs at Matlock and Buxton, and at Stoney Middleton, where the Romans established a bath.

Agriculture, especially in the north, is backward. A large proportion of the land is in pasture. There are rich meadows along the courses of the rivers; along that of the Dove are large dairies, where great quantities of cheese are made. Large crops of wheat and barley [the latter for the Burton breweries[ are grown on the red marl, and oats on the poorer land. It was formerly the custom when the wheat was thin in the spring to sow barley amongst it; the produce of this mixture was called "blend", and ground to meal, of which the poorer classes made bread. Spring wheat is now sown instead of barley. Potatoes are grown in large quantities.

The oxen are of various breeds; the heaviest kinds are fattened on the rich pastures of this county. The sheep on the hills are similar to the Cheviot in the lowlands, South Down and Leicester are most esteemed. Derbyshire has no very large woods. Coppices and plantations, where poles are grown for the mines, are numerous.

The principal manufactures of the county are cotton, calico, silk, and lace. Derby is the chief seat of the manufactures. The lead mines are under the jurisdiction of stewards appointed by the lessees. They preside in the barmote courts, held twice a year, and determine all disputes that arise in working the mines.

The county returns six members to parliament; two for the north, two for the south, and two for Derby. At the period of the Domesday survey Derbyshire, was divided for civil purposes into five wapentakes : Scarvedale, Hamestan, Morlestan, Walecross, and Apultre. It is now divided into six hundreds : High Peak, Wirksworth, Scarsdale, Morleston and Litchurch, Appletree, Repton and Gresley. Derbyshire forms an archdeaconry in the diocese of Lichfield, and contains nineteen rural deaneries. It is divided into nine unions, including 272 parishes and townships : Chapel-en-le-Frith, Bakewell, Glossop, Hayfield, Shardlow, Ashbourne, Belper, Chesterfield, and Derby. Besides Derby, which is the only parliamentary borough and market town, there are sixteen other market towns : Alfreton, Ashbourne, Ashover, Bakewell, Belper, Buxton, Chapel-en-le-Frith, Chesterfield, Crich, Ilkeston, Wirksworth, Cromford, Dronfield, Heanor, Tideswell, and Winster.

The principal antiquities of Derbyshire are Druid circles of stones and barrows at Arbor-low and Stanton Moor, and some cromlechs at Hathersage. The British road Icknield Street crossed the county from south-west to north-east. The Romans had stations at Derventio, Buxton, Brough in Hopedale, and Melandra Castle; and roads - Long Lane, from Little Chester to Chesterton, and another through Buxton to Manchester. There are remains of Melandra, Mackworth, Castleton, and Codnor castles, of Haddon Hall, and South Wingfield Manor House, of the priories of Repton and Gresley, Dale and Beauchief Abbeys, and Yeaveley Preceptory.

The chief seats of the nobility are Chatsworth and Hardwicke, of the Duke of Devonshire; Bolsover, of the Duke of Portland; Elvaston, of Earl Harrington; Bretby, of Earl Chesterfield; Melbourne Park, of Viscount Melbourne; Hassop, of Earl Newburgh; Sudbury, of Lord Vernon; Doveridge, of Lord Waterpark; Redestone, of Lord Scarsdale."


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Derbyshire Breweries

Alton & Co. Ltd.

Alton & Co. Ltd. were based at the Wardwick Brewery in Derby. The history of the brewery site goes back to the late 18th century. Brewing is thought to have been started by Thomas Lowe following his acquistion of the premises from John and Samuel Crompton. Successful in business, Thomas Lowe became involved in public affairs and served as Mayor of Derby. In September 1828 the firm was transferred to his son Charles Matthew Lowe who, for some years, had been assisting with the business. Born in 1784, he had married Penelope Orme in 1814. He served as a magistrate and, like his father, was elected to the office of Mayor in 1831.

Derby : Advertisement for M. C. Wedge and Co. of the Wardwick Brewery [1855]

In 1838 the Wardwick Brewery was acquired by Moreton Charles Wedge of Newport in Shropshire. His advertisements suggest he was not a man to undersell himself for he claimed his beers could not be surpassed in quality. He continued to run the business until selling to Messrs. William Alton and Edward Barnett. I would suggest that the advertisement below, dated October 1863, was published not long after the partners took over the business, along with the freehold of the brewery. Moreton Wedge remained in Derby and was known to assist the company when required. Indeed, it was recorded that he had been working at the brewery shortly before his death in 1881.

Derby : Advertisement for Messrs. Alton and Barnett of the Wardwick Brewery [1863]

Derby : Dissolution of the partnership between William Alton and Edward Barnett of the Wardwick Brewery [1870]

The above notice is interesting in that it shows that the partnership of William Alton and Edward Barnett was dissolved in 1870. Secondly, it shows that the business also operated in Castle Donington. Indeed, Heage-born maltster William Alton had been based in Castle Donington for many years. As his business developed and his prosperity increased he was able to move into the Manor House at Borrowash.

Derby : Wardwick Brewery of Alton & Co. Ltd. [1900]

In December 1873 the solicitor George D'Arcy Clark acquired a share in the brewery and joined William Alton as a business partner. Together, they developed the business markedly and this meant that the Wardwick Brewery required larger premises. Adjoining land was acquired and further brewery buildings erected. The above architectural drawing shows hows the Wardwick brewery appeared in 1900.

When William Alton died his shares and interest in the Wardwick Brewery passed to his nephew Hepworth Tropolet Alton. The son of a Wesleyan minister, he was born in Ramsgate, Kent in 1859. He moved up north to live with his uncle and started as a clerk in the business early in life. He married Helen Clarke at Holborn in April 1884. She was the daughter of Alderman Thomas Clarke who served as Mayor of Derby in 1862. Hepworth Alton continued in partnership with George D'Arcy Clark, and was joined by Arthur Walkden. This business relationship continued until the 17th of April 1888, when the firm was converted into a Limited Liability Company, under the joint Stock Companies Acts, with a capital of £110,000.

Alton's Famous Derby Ales

During the late Victorian period Alton & Co. Ltd. grew significantly, acquiring houses as they came on the market and also snapping up smaller brewery concerns. For example, in 1895 the company acquired Messrs. Weall Brothers of Ashbourne Road, along with 7 public houses. A new company was registered in July 1899, by which time the brewery operated 91 public-houses. The tied estate had grown to 154 houses when the company was acquired by Stretton's Derby Brewery Ltd. in January 1903. Hepworth Tropolet Alton died later in the year at the relatively young age of 45. He left his estate to James William Newbold.

Despite being owned by Stretton's, Alton & Co. Ltd. enjoyed autonomy and was managed as a separate concern until 1922 when the brewery was closed. Stretton's were themselves mopped up by Samuel Allsopp and Sons Ltd. in 1927.

Stretton's Derby Ales

Zachary Smith & Co.

Zachary Smith & Co. were based at the Trent Brewery in Shardlow. By all accounts the founder, who lived to the grand age of 91, sounded like he was a decent chap who shared his wealth and improved the lot of less fortunate souls.

Zachary Smith of the Trent Brewery at Shardlow

Born in Ashby-de-la-Zouch in August 1827, Zachary Smith grew up in Derby after his family moved when he was still a child. At an early age he was apprenticed to Messrs. Wetherheds, an ironmongery firm. He later became a traveller to and eventually a junior partner in the firm of Messrs. Pegg and Co., plasterers and colour merchants of the Morledge Mills, in which he was succeeded by his younger brother Alfred.

Shardlow : Advertisement for Statham & Co. of the Trent Brewery [1866]

In 1865, together with his brother John, he joined Isaiah Statham and started the Trent Brewery at Shardlow, a firm that originally traded as Statham and Co. However, after around two years of the firm's inception, Isaiah Statham left the partnership. A new sleeping partner was found in John Smith [later Sir John Smith, the brass founder of Derby]. He retained an interest in the business until 1887 when Zachary Smith continued on his own.

In June 1880, at the Church of St. Augustine Kilburn, Zachary Smith married Emma, the daughter Martin Cregan of Dublin, former president of the Royal Hibernian Academy of Artists. The couple did not have any children.

Shardlow : Prospectus for Debentures of Z. Smith & Co. Ltd. of the Trent Brewery [1898]

Over the years Zachary Smith acquired public-houses as the opportunity arose, letting them at moderate rates to ensure their viability. All were within practical reach of the drays from the brewery. In 1898 the firm was turned into a limited liability company, in which Zachary Smith remained the principal shareholder and managing director. The other directors included Unwin Sowter and Henry Dickinson. At this time the firm operated 31 freehold licensed houses, along with another 19 held on leases.

Zachary Smith died in December 1918 at Broughton House, an attractive early 19th century building that was once the home of the Sutton family prior to their move to Shardlow Hall in 1826.

In his obituary, it was stated that Zachary Smith "will remembered as a man of integrity, utterly free from all ostentation, modest and unassuming, and yet always courteous. He was a generous supporter of all local charities, and knew also how to make gifts by stealth." It was reported that "he was an earnest Churchman. In early life he was a Sunday School teacher at St. Werburgh's Church in Derby. At Shardlow for 30 years, up to Easter 1900, he was churchwarden of the Parish Church, and, as long as he could walk so far, was a regular attendant at the services. He was also a manager of the Parochial Schools.

In Zachary Smith's obituary it was also written that "after his business was fairly established, he found great enjoyment in his annual tours of travel, and visited the Holy Land, Egypt, Jamaica, Norway and the Mediterranean. He was also extremely fond of a game of bowls. His regular life and daily outdoor exercise contributed greatly to his long life, for he was well on in his ninety-second year, retaining his faculties in a marvellous manner up to the close of his earthly life.

In his will Zachary Smith bequeathed money to George Buxton, a clerk of the brewery, along with his junior staff. He also provided for other long-serving employees at the Trent Brewery. In addition, he bequeathed a considerable sum to Ellen Ross Beamish, the nurse who had cared from him during failing health. His servants, James Land and John Sanders, also received sums of money, along with Harriet Ann Twells, widow of a servant. There was also a donation to the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary.

The business continued to be managed by George and John Herrod but, following the death of the latter in February 1922, the company, along with more than 80 public-houses, was acquired by Marston, Thompson & Evershed of Shobnall near Burton-on-Trent.