Some history of the Nottingham Arms at Tewkesbury in the county of Gloucestershire.


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The Nottingham Arms is housed within a truly historic building. However, it did not become a tavern until the mid-19th century. Most architectural boffins seem to agree that parts of the building date to around 1500. Indeed, this correlates with the date of the adjoining Walls Court, one of the numerous alleys and courts for which Tewkesbury is noted. Walls Court is a particularly fine example of these and is thought to date back to 1470. A side entrance to the Nottingham Arms provides access to Walls Court. A massive cross-beam in the bar has also been dated to 1500. There is an argument that the building's transformation into a public-house prevented the place from falling into decay. In order to salvage the building from terminal deterioration, the frontage was restored and rebuilt in the 20th century. This created a larger public-bar and improved accommodation for those running the tavern.

Tewkesbury : Poster advertising a sale of the Nottingham House [1859]

The building has been known as the Nottingham Arms for much of its time as a public-house. However, it was formerly known as the Nottingham House Inn and Nottingham Inn. A sale poster from 1859 shows that the property was simply known as the Nottingham House when occupied by George Davis. A post office directory published three years earlier lists George Smith as a frame-maker located in the High Street. Interestingly, 36 year-old Jane Davis is recorded as a beer house-keeper in the census conducted two years after this sale. It is possible that the house was licensed at the time of the sale. The auction was instigated following the death of Mary Day, who had held the freehold.

Jane Davis re-married in November 1862 to William Bradford. The licence of the house would have been transferred to him shortly after this date, probably at the next sessions. Born in Macclesfield, Cheshire around 1829, William Bradford had come to Tewkesbury to work in the mills. He would become the longest-serving landlord of the Nottingham House Inn. Why the house is known as the Nottingham seems to have been lost in the mists of time. Jane's son Henry remained on the premises during his childhood. He would later be apprenticed to the master cooper Jesse Minett who had premises on Oldbury Road.

The Nottingham House Inn made few appearances in the local newspapers during the Victorian era, suggesting that William Bradford kept an orderly house. Mind you, he had previously served as a Special Constable not long after his arrival in Tewkesbury. Many beer houses would make the news for some illegal or bawdy behaviour. However, there appears to have been few incidents at this tavern.

The house was mentioned in October 1870 when William Bradford was called as a witness to the coroner's inquest held on the body of Benjamin Purser who committed suicide in the River Avon. The publican told the court that Purser had called into the Nottingham House Inn about quarter-past four in the afternoon for a glass of ale. William Bradford observed that Benjamin Purser was not in his usual jocular mood but seemed in a melancholy state. From the evidence it would appear that the poor man was in a state over his financial affairs. He had been unable to pay his rent earlier in the day when the baker John Trigg called on him for the money. His drink at the Nottingham House Inn was to be his last drop before he made his way to the river. The Jury at the inquest returned a verdict that he had drowned himself whilst he was of unsound mind.

In the late 19th century there were five dwellings behind the Nottingham House in Wall's Court. Most of the occupants were labourers with the exception of the miller John White at No.1 and the railway plate-layer John Ancil living in No.5. In his retirement years, William Bradford would occupy one of the cottages.

At the end of the 19th century William and Jane Bradford hung up their aprons and handed over the reins of the beer house to John and Elizabeth Hale. The licence of what was now known as the Nottingham Arms was transferred to the new publican in July 1899. Having worked in the Nottingham for four decades Jane Bradford did not enjoy a long retirement as she passed away in the following year. She and William had moved to a house on Oldbury Road but the publican returned to his old stamping ground, settling into a cottage in Wall's Court. He would often call into the Nottingham Arms for a beer. He did this for the last time on the evening of Tuesday 16th April 1912 when Mrs. Rose Jordan served him with a pint of beer and two whiskies. He left the pub at eleven o'clock to retire to bed. The 88 year-old former publican had been suffering with a bad chest and his niece was concerned about his health. She called upon him on the next morning where she found him only just alive. Dr. Elder was called but William Bradford died a few minutes before his arrival.

Tewkesbury : Advertisement for Bayliss & Merrell [1918]

William Bradford was recorded as proprietor of the Nottingham House in a rate book dated 1891 and, judging by the tidy sum he left to the spinster Emily Harris, it would seem that he had owned the house. He was probably the man who sold the property to Bayliss & Merrell, a local firm based on Mythe Road close to the Black Bear. The wine merchants were also brewers and operated a distillery. The company also owned the Seven Stars at Upton-on-Severn. The above advertisement shows that the Nottingham Arms would have sold their ales made around the corner in Mythe Road. Bottled beers from Samuel Allsopp and Sons Ltd. of Burton-on-Trent may also have been available in the pub as Bayliss & Merrell were agents for these products.

The key figure behind Bayliss & Merrell was George Clarke Bayliss. The son of Adam Bayliss, of Northend Farm near Malvern, he moved to Tewkesbury as a young man in 1860. He served an apprenticeship with the wine and spirits merchant Joseph Perkins before forming a partnership with William H. Merrell to acquire the Tewkesbury Distillery of Banaster, Vernon, Cossens & Co. He continued the business after the demise of his partner. He married Jane Watson, daughter of the draper George Watson, in August 1871. Through his sporting prowess, he became a well-known figure of the town. He served as Honorary Secretary of the old Tewkesbury Bowling Club for many years and he was also closely associated with the Tewkesbury Regatta. George Bayliss served as a member of the Town Council in the late Victorian era. He was Mayor of the town in 1908-9 after which he held a seat on the council until his retirement in 1921. It was following the death of his wife that he retired from public life and sold his business interests and property. He moved to Ceylon [Sri Lanka] to live on the tea and rubber plantation at Rilhena managed by his son-in-law George Hawkins. He died there at the age of 81 in January 1927.

John and Elizabeth Hale were probably managers or tenants for Bayliss & Merrell. John Hale, along with his sons Henry and Jesse, had previously worked at the cooperage on Oldbury Road. Indeed, the publican continued in this role whilst at the Nottingham Arms. His wife Elizabeth would hold the fort whilst he brought in an additional revenue stream. The couple's daughters Alice and Annie also worked as barmaids in the Nottingham Arms.

John Hale was suffering from a long illness by March 1912 when the licence was transferred to his son Jesse who acted as interim manager. George Clarke Bayliss applied for a transfer of the licence to Thomas Jordan and this was granted in April 1912. John Hale died at East Street in the following month. He was laid to rest on Saturday May 25th when the Abbey bellringers rang a muffled peal of in honour of the former publican who had been a ringer for 33 years.

Formerly trading as general dealers in Oldbury Road, Thomas and Rose Jordan kept the Nottingham Arms for the remainder of 1912. However, it would seem that the couple did not find life in the licensed trade to their liking. The couple departed in the following year and Rose Jordan later kept a sweet shop in the town. She appeared in the Children's Court in December 1919 when two young lads, Arthur Smith and William Ingram, were charged with stealing a box of sweets from her shop. Police-Constable Bird found the empty box near the railway crossing and later questioned the boys who confessed to taking them. Mr. Sidney Baker, who appeared for Arthur Smith, asked that "no conviction be recorded against the lads on the undertaking that Smith paid for the sweets and that both lads should be thrashed by their parents in the presence of the police." A rather unusual request but the Bench decided not to convict the boys.

Thomas and Rose Jordan did have another spell in the licensed trade. Between 1924 and 1935 the couple kept the Odessa Inn at Southwick to the south of the town.

Having previously kept the Anchor Hotel, Louis Beech succeded Thomas Rose as licensee of the Nottingham Arms in 1913. He was a tenant for Bayliss & Merrell but in a short space of time he ran up debts and was summoned to appear at the first meeting of his creditors in May 1915. He did not appear at the meeting and his whereabouts were unknown. George Clarke Bayliss was seeking £129 4s. 2d. for goods supplied. Another creditor was the Anglo-Bavarian Brewery Company of Shepton Mallet. The Official Receiver said that Louis Beech had disappeared, and his whereabouts were not known. He asked George Bayliss if he knew where Beech was, to which he replied: "he had heard that he was in London and then in Bournemouth, "mixed up with a cinema troupe." He added that "he had received his half-year's rent for the Nottingham House but he only made Beech a bankrupt in order to protect the licence of the house and save any complication if happened to turn up." The case went to the Cheltenham Bankruptcy Court but the publican again failed to appear so a warrant for his arrest was issued. I am not sure if Louis Beech was ever found - it is thought that he made his way to the United States.

Tewkesbury : John Rice and Family

With Louis Beech doing a runner, the licence of the Nottingham Arms was transferred to John Rice on May 28th, 1915. He was an employee of the property owners Bayliss & Merrell, having previously worked as a cellarman before learning the art of brewing. The son of John Rice and Applolonia Jones, he is one of the young men featured in the above photograph. He kept the beer house with his wife Fanny. The couple had six children, three sons and three daughters.

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Fanny Rice [Née Parker], landlady of the Nottingham Arms held the title of "Tewkesbury's Oldest Inhabitant" before her death, aged 97, at Holm Hospital in the autumn of 1957. She had spent the whole of her life in Tewkesbury and celebrated her 97th birthday on Boxing Day in 1956. She was a widow for over 30 years and had outlived her three sons, Thomas, Harry and Walter. At the time of her death, she had 16 grandchildren and 29 great-grandchildren.

Beers Labels issued by Flower and Sons Limited of Stratford-on-Avon in Warwickshire

When the properties owned by George Clarke Bayliss were sold by auction in April 1921 the Nottingham Arms was bought by Flower and Sons Ltd. of Stratford-on-Avon. The purchase price was £610, a modest sum for the period but one that perhaps reflected the cost of repairs and restoration required.

Following the completion of the sale, the licence of the Nottingham Arms was transferred to Henry Walter Parker in August 1921. Born in the town in 1888, he married Laura Beatrice Green at Twyning in December 1910.

Electra Amuser Machine

Like many other Tewkesbury publicans, Henry Parker installed an Electra Amuser Machine in the Nottingham Arms. However, for some reason this house was singled out by the police for prosecution in what was to become something of a test case. The Borough Police Court met in August 1923 to hear the evidence in this case. Both Henry Parker and the owner of the machine subsequently went to the Court of Quarter Sessions in May 1924. Similar evidence was read out in the court where it was stated that 27 public-houses in Tewkesbury had these machines installed. The fact that Henry Parker removed the machine as soon as the police visited the premises, coupled with his compliance throughout the case, resulted in a small fine as he pleaded guilty. However, Charles Dennis, owner of the machine, was fined £20 and ordered to pay the costs of the prosecution. His lawyer planned to appeal against the decision. The Electra Amuser Machine, a forerunner of fruit machines in public-houses, was introduced to Britain from the continent. The use of an electrical shock was added in an attempt to make it "more legal" in the UK.

There was an objection to the renewal of the licence at the Sessions of March 1925. In order to have a continuation of the licence Flower and Sons Ltd. pledged to undertake improvements to the property. In granting the licence, the Licensing Justices stated that it was on condition that the alterations should be carried out at once.

Tewkesbury : Nottingham Arms [c.1930]

Rachel Langdon, licensee of the pub in September 2021, sent me the above photograph which ignited my interest in the history of the Nottingham Arms. It is a lovely photograph featuring a family on the threshold of the premises. There is also the face of what looks like a young girl in the bedroom window. Judging by the shoes and skirt lengths, I estimated that the photograph was taken in the late 1920s. Certainly, it is post-alterations to the tavern which were ordered to be undertaken in 1925. It is not the Cubitt family who moved into the Nottingham Arms during 1933 [see later photograph]. Therefore, it is a pretty safe bet to say that it is the Baldwin family stood outside the pub. Harry Baldwin of Gloucester was granted the licence in December 1926 and he remained in charge of the house until 1933. He kept the pub with his wife Frances.

Cubitt and Isabella Treen were running the Nottingham Arms during the 1930s. They are pictured below in another photograph kindly supplied to me by Rachel Langdon, licensee of the pub in September 2021. Cubitt is looking like an old school publican and has his hand on the shoulder of Isabella, a woman much younger than himself.

Tewkesbury : William Cubitt and Isabella Treen [c.1930]

Cubitt Treen, full name William Cubitt Treen, became the licensee of the Nottingham Arms in July 1933. Born at Ross in Herefordshire in 1867, he grew up in Kent and was known to be a native of the Garden of England. His father, also named William, was a Portland Cement Manufacturer and was based at the Crown Works in Gravesend. William Cubitt Treen married Sophia Waller at Strood in July 1890. She was the daughter of the Northfleet carpenter John Waller and his wife Mary. Cubitt Treen became a white collar worker and was documented as a cashier in 1891. However, his position was such that he and Sophia could employ a servant at their home on the Dover Road at Northfleet. The couple had three children, William, Frank and Gilbert, before they moved from Northfleet to Gravesend from where Cubitt worked as an accountant. He was documented as a hotel proprietor by November 1905 when he was initiated at the St. Barnabus Lodge of the United Grand Lodge of Freemasons.

Cubitt Treen's life took a rather unusual turn during the Edwardian period. By 1911 he was running The Panama at Luton in Bedfordshire, a public-house formerly known as The Exchange. Indeed, his brother Joseph kept a neighbouring Luton pub called The Granville. The 1911 census does not record Cubitt's wife and children at The Panama. However, Nuneaton-born Isabella Mary Dean was working at this establishment as a barmaid. This is the woman with whom he would spend the rest of his days. She was seventeen years younger than the publican. There is some irony in the fact that The Panama public-house was in Waller Street, the maiden name of his wife Sophia. Whilst Cubitt was entangled with Isabella Dean, Sophia, along with her three sons, moved to Birmingham where she was appointed governess of the City Infirmary School. Her residence was at the more affluent end of Mary Street in Balsall Heath. When the census enumerator called in 1911 she was recorded as a married woman, suggesting perhaps that she was in denial of her husband's infidelity or that Cubitt Treen was living a double life!

Distinguished Conduct Medal

Cubitt's eldest son, also named William Cubitt Treen, was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal in the First World War. He enlisted as a private but was later made a commissioned officer. He was awarded the medal by Major Walduck at Stoney Lane Barracks in Birmingham in April 1916. He was serving in the 1st Warwickshire Battery, 3rd South Midland Brigade, R.F.A., the decoration recognising "the work he did in connection with the telephonic communication with his battery in France." This involved bravery in repairing the wires which were continually broken by shell fire.

Cubitt's second son, Frank Barry Treen, also served in the First World War with the Royal Field Artillery. Indeed, whilst serving in France he fell in love with Lucienne Flore Wasselin whom he married at Boulogne-sur-Mer in April 1919. She was the daughter of the merchant's assistant Henri Wasselin of 21 Rue Dringhen in Boulogne. Frank Treen was discharged from the military in 1920. On his return to England Frank lived for a period in Ladywood but by 1930 he and Lucienne lived with Cubitt and Isabella who were running the Crown Inn on Church Street in Eckington. His father and new partner were certainly moving around a lot. In the late 1920s they had been running the Kenilworth Hotel at Cardiff. In 1931 the couple, along with Frank and Lucienne, were running the Plough Inn at Bewdley.

Cubitt's youngest son, Gilbert Roy Treen, also rose through the ranks of the army during the First World War, finishing as a Warrant Officer. After his discharge in 1919 following service in Egypt, he would later live in London working as a civil servant.

The Treens moved to the Nottigham Arms in 1933. Lucienne's husband, Frank Treen, died aged just 37 a year after the family arrived in Tewkesbury.

Cubitt Treen, described as possessing "a quiet kindly disposition" was credited with instigating the establishment of the Tewkesbury Licensed Victuallers' Association, of which he was treasurer. After an illness of some weeks, the publican died in June 1941 at the Nottingham Arms. However, the family remained in charge of the public-house for many more years. Widow Lucienne Treen had married Joseph Wilkins at Cheltenham in July 1939 and the couple succeeded Cubitt and Isabella Treen as hosts of the pub, though it was Isabella who held the licence. She applied for and gained the pub's full licence in March 1949. Her step-son Frank remained at the pub and even lived with the family after they left the Nottingham Arms and resided on the Oldfield Estate.

Although living at the Nottingham Arms, Joseph Wilkins continued to work as a patrol officer for the Automobile Association, a position he had held since the 1920s. Following his education at Tewkesbury Council Schools, his son Alfred [better known as Joe] started his career with Charles Matthews, a butcher on Church Street near The Cross. However, he left to join the army in May 1936. As a private [or signalman] he served in the Royal Corps of Signals and was posted to Hong Kong in December 1937. When the garrison on the Crown colony capitulated to Japanese forces on Christmas Day 1941 Joe Wilkins became a prisoner of war. The family at the Nottingham Arms were informed by the records office of the Royal Signals that his official status was 'missing.' It was six months later that the family received a postcard from Signalman Wilkins that he was alive but imprisoned at the Japanese Camp No.2 in Osaka. He was finally liberated in September 1945.

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Isabella Treen decided to retire from the licensed trade in September 1955. A widow for 14 years, she told the local newspaper that "she found the work somewhat exacting and in her own words she feels that she has earned a rest." It was stated that the Nottingham Arms has "always been a well-conducted house, and Mrs. Treen has always been well-liked, both by regular patrons and summer visitors. She had a turn for repartee, and has always taken in good part the badinage and exchange of wit, which is so frequently a feature of the relations between a well-known licensee and old acquaintances among customers."

Tewkesbury : Advertisement for Maurice Treen of Barton Street [1946]

The Treen family name would become synonymous with another popular retail outlet in Tewkesbury. Lucienne's son Frank Treen went into partnership with Maurice Treen who had started in business as a wireless and record dealer in 1946, an exciting period to be involved in home entertainment with television sales set to rocket in the early 1950s. Maurice Treen first established the business at No.10 Barton Street where he lived with his wife Lilian. The couple moved next door to No.11 before Frank joined the business which subsequently traded as Treen Bros. These premises, along with the adjoining former Duke of York, still stand in Barton Street.

Tewkesbury : Advertisement for Treen Bros. Music and Television Shop on the High Street [1957]

A key part of Maurice Treen's business was providing amplifiers for music and other public events. He was also involved in arranging dances. For example he organised a Christmas Eve dance at Watson Hall in 1945, an event to raise funds for Tewkesbury Hospital. In 1947 Maurice Treen took over the wireless battery rounds operated by John Morgan and a van featuring the Treen name was seen around the local villages. The shop was later moved to 23-24 High Street which I believe was formerly the premises of A. C. Cash Ltd., radio, television and electrical engineers. Maurice Treen continued to provide the public address equipment for many Tewkesbury events, including the Mop Fair.

When living at the Nottingham Arms with the family Frank Treen was an excellent darts player. Indeed, he was Champion of the Tewkesbury and District Darts League three years in a row. Maurice was also a demon with the arrows. The pub had an extremely good side and were very hard to beat. Frank Treen married Margaret Smith in October 1959. She was well known as a home service advisor throughout Gloucestershire and neighbouring counties.

Tewkesbury : Radio and Television Shop of Treen Bros. [c.1960]

Maurice Treen retired in 1991 but the business was continued by his son Bill who joined the firm after leading school. He traded until his retirement in 2017. It was a business that operated in Tewkesbury for 70 years.

The couple charged with succeeding the popular Treen clan were Edward and Eileen Chadwick. He had been in the licensed trade since 1936 when he kept the White Hart Hotel at Moreton-in-Marsh. However, the couple were married at Bromley in Kent during January 1947. They would later move to Cheltenham where their local was the Royal Well Tavern.

Another name to add to the list of long-serving landlords of the Nottingham Arms is that of Eric Foxwell who held the licence for over 20 years. Born in 1913 he lived at Ashchurch House Lodge where his father worked as a gardener. At the outbreak of World War 2 he was working as a grocer's assistant when he married Ida Dudfield who lived at Fairview in Tirley. The wedding took place at Cheltenham where the bride wore a navy blue angora frock, with navy hat and shoes. In 1954 the couple were living at No.1 Barton Terrace in Tewkesbury when he successfully applied for the licence of the Star Inn at Overbury. His only experience of the trade was working as a barman in the evenings so the Licensing Justices told him he had a lot to learn. And learn he did for he and his wife's stay at the Nottingham Arms endured for two decades. The couple used the front bedroom for bed and breakfast accommodation. They also upheld the pub's fine tradition of darts. Ida Foxwell was a key figure within the Nottingham Arms Ladies' Darts Club.

Barry Saunders was the licensee of the Nottingham Arms throughout the 1980s. He died at Denham Garden Village in April 2008. If anybody has any memories of this publican then please get in touch.

Tewkesbury : Nottingham Arms [2010]

Licensees of the Nottingham Arms

1861 - 1863 Jane Davis
1863 - 1899 William Bradford
1899 - 1912 John Hale
1912 - 1912 Jesse Hale
1912 - 1913 Thomas Jordan
1913 - 1915 Louis James Beech
1915 - 1921 John William Rice
1921 - 1926 Henry Walter Parker
1926 - 1933 Harry Baldwin
1933 - 1941 Cubitt Treen
1941 - 1955 Isabella Treen
1955 - 1956 Lucienne Wilkins
1956 - 1958 Edward Frederick Chadwick
1958 - 1979 Eric Alfred Foxwell
1979 - 1994 Barry John Saunders
1994 - David Bridgeman
Note : this is not a complete list of licensees for this pub.

Flower's Ales

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Tewkesbury : Inn Sign of the Nottingham Arms [2010]

Related Newspaper Articles

"A rough-looking pea-picker, named John Fisher, was charged with being drunk and disorderly in Wall's Court. John Hale, licensee of the Nottingham Arms, stated that at 6.30 on Saturday evening last the prisoner came into his wash-house in Wall's Court, hit him in the eye and on the back of the head. The prisoner appeared with a black eye, and in reply to a remark upon it from the Bench, Mr. Hale said he did it in self-defence, and was very sorry he didn't give him some more. The prisoner said he could remember nothing about it. Inspector Lane said the prisoner told him he got the drink coming from, Kemerton. Prisoner was sent to gaol for 14 days' hard labour."
"Borough Police Court"
The Tewkesbury Register : July 23rd 1910 Page 5

"At the Borough Police Court on Friday before the Mayor and Messrs. J. S. Sargeaunt, A. Baker, A. E. Healing, J. W. Howell, and J. Willis, junr. Henry Walter Parker, licensee of the Nottingham House, was charged under the Betting Act, 1853, with permitting his house to be used for the purpose of money being received by him as a consideration for an undertaking to give a check entitling the holder to obtain goods to the value of such check on a contingency relating to a game known as the Electra Amuser. Charles Dennis, of 156, High Street, Cheltenham, the owner of the Electra Amuser Machine, was similarly charged. Mr. Trevor Wellington, of Gloucester, prosecuted on behalf of the Police. Mr. G. O. Slade [instructed by Mr. Sidney Baker] appeared for Dennis, and Mr. Lionel Lane for Parker. Defendants elected to be tried by a Jury. Mr. Wellington, in opening his case, stated that the prosecution did not attach any great degree of moral culpability to the cases, but to decide whether the use of this machine was a game of chance or not. It was not suggested that the machine was used otherwise than under the bona fide belief that there was no contravention of the law in using it. Inspector Welchman stated that on the 3rd July at a quarter to 1 p.m. he visited the Nottingham House where in the bar he saw a slot automatic machine called the Electra Amuser and on the front of it was printed "this machine gives value for each penny placed therein and is therefore in conformity with the law." As witness entered the bar John Rhodes was working the machine and in witness' presence put two pennies in the slot and won nothing nor in either case did he receive a shock. There was a lever by the side of the machine by means of which the electricity could be cut off. [At this stage Mr. Lionel Lane demonstrated the working of the machine]. The landlord was not in, but at 9 o'clock witness called again and then there were present Albert Underwood, Arthur Alfred Earthridge and John Underwood working the machine. Witness told Parker that he had called respecting the legality of the machine and that he would report the facts to his Superintendent. He replied that if there was anything wrong with it he would have it removed at once. Albert Underwood said he had just spent 4d. on it and won 6d. Earthridge said that on Sunday last he won 46 checks with 1d. but had had two goes that night and lost. John Underwood said he had just had a pennyworth and lost. Electric current was not being used, the men switched it off and played with the ball only. The checks were of varying value, 1d., 2d., 4d., 6d., 1/- and 2/6, this information being given by the landlord who also told witness that he received 25 per cent. of the takings and the owner of the machine was Mr. Charles Dennis who received the rest of the money. He also said the checks won had to be spent in the house. Upon the ball falling into a receptacle marked "check" the user did not know the value of the check until the check came. Cross-examined by Mr. Slade: witness put two pennies in the machine in the presence of Rhodes, with no personal interest whether he won or lost but to ascertain whether there was any skill used. Witness did not win : the machine was not out of order. A person using the electricity would have value for money. He did not think anyone by practice could become more efficient. Cross-examined by Mr. Lane : Directly the penny is placed in the slot there is a flow of electricity until it is switched off, and in spite of it being switched off there is the exhaustion of a certain amount of electricity. Re-examined by Mr. Wellington: On Tuesday last witness had a conversation with Dennis who admitted the ownership of the machine. John Rhodes, musician, corroborated the evidence of the last witness relating to the earlier part of the day. He was familiar with the machine which he had used a number of times and agreed with the evidence of the last witness as to the use of skill in manipulating the machine. Cross-examined by Mr. Slade : He would not go so far as to say there was no skill required. His skill was not sufficient to enable him to win. The machine was the attraction, not the house, it passed away the time and he was fond of a bit of a gamble. He did not think there was a half-pennyworth of skill in it. He spent on an average about £1 a week on these machines and got back about 8/. He regarded the machine as something to amuse himself with. Albert Underwood, of St. Mary's Lane, corroborated the Inspector's evidence. He had used the current before the Inspector came. Witness thought it was more a game of skill than a game of chance. If one got a right pressure one could get the ball every time. Alfred Earthridge, of Freeman's Court, an ex-soldier suffering from shell shock, said he used the machine for his nerves. On one occasion he got 46 checks for one penny and on another 87. John Underwood said he agreed with his brother's evidence but not with the evidence of Earthridge. Mr. Slade, addressing the Bench, submitted that by the machine a charge of 1d. was made for electricity to which was added a subsidiary game of skill whilst other machines gave electricity only. Upon the question of the game he submitted that in its exercise, skill predominated and the prosecution upon whom lay the onus of proof to the contrary had failed to prove that it was a game in which chance predominated. Mr. Lane also argued that the machine was for the sale of electricity and pointed out that the balls cuuld not be used without the use of electricity and therefore the sale took the case outside the Betting Act. Mr. Wellington argued that the main use of the machine was not the supply of electricity, which was only placed in the machine for the purpose of trying to make something that was illegal legal. The Bench committed defendants for trial by Quarter Sessions bail in their own recognizances being accepted."
"Important Test Case before Borough Bench"
The Tewkesbury Register : August 4th 1923 Page 3

"Frederick Thomas Underwood, of Bray's Court, was charged with stealing 7/3, the moneys of Harry Baldwin, of the Nottingham Arms Inn. Inspector Welchman conducted the prosecution. Harry Baldwin stated that on Wednesday last, about 2.30 p.m., defendant came into the bar, had half a pint of beer, and later called for four half-pints of bitter and one of ale; this came to 1/3½. He tendered a two-shilling piece, witness gave him the change and defendant gave the drink to his friends. About 3.30 witness was called from the bar and left by the side door, there being other customers in the bar, including Charles Healey, at the time. About five minutes afterwards he returned by the front door, and as he came in he saw defendant leaning over the counter and withdrawing his left hand from the direction of the till to put it into his pocket. He repeated this action before witness could get at him, and this time witness heard the sound of money. Witness put his hand on defendant's right arm and asked him what he was doing. He replied that it was quite alright, and only a joke. Witness asked him to turn out his pockets, and after some demur he turned out the pocket witness had seen him put something in and produced 6/- in silver and 1/3 in copper, saying this was change for a note he had given witness. He had not given a 10/- note, and witness did not change such a note that day until 4.30 in the afternoon. The till was not a "register," but witness believed it was between 7 and 10 shillings short. Francis Baldwin, wife of the last witness, said that during the time she was in the bar defendant did not tender a 10/- note. Charles Healey, of Wall's Court, stated that he was in the bar with the defendant and others, when the landlord left the bar. Defendant lent over the counter, put his left hand into the till and put something into his pocket which rattled like money. Then he put his right hand in the till and put something in his pocket. At Mr. Baldwin's request he pulled money out of his pocket and put it on the counter. Witness didn't see defendant tender a 10/- note. In the course of cross-examination which defendant put with some little skill to all the witnesses, Healey said the landlord caught defendant red-handed and he had never seen anything done cleverer or better in his life. P.C. Baglin stated that he was called to the house where he saw defendant and the landlord. The latter said he wished to give defendant in charge for stealing money from the till, and witness then told Underwood that he would arrest him. Witness cautioned him, and defendant said he had put a 10/- note on the counter for half a pint of beer; the change was wrong and he only did it for a joke. At the police station defendant said he put down a 10/- note, and as he went to get the change fell over the counter when the landlord came in and accused him of robbing the till. In addition to the money he turned out of the pocket, defendant had 6/0½ in his possession. Underwood, in a statement to the Bench, said this was the first time in his life that such a thing had happened, and he thought the prosecution could have been done without. He owed the landlord half a crown, and having called for a half pint he put down a 10/- note. The landlord said he would deduct the half crown from the change, and defendant asked him to let it stop until the holidays were over. He then sent for the police because defendant was arguing the point with him. Inspector Welchman informed the Bench that the defendant was a very respectable young man, who had never been in trouble before, and he [the Inspector] was very sorry to see him there that morning. Defendant did very good service in the war, and was one of the first to join up. The Bench bound the defendant over in a surety of £5 to be of good behaviour for six months."
"Borough Police Court"
The Tewkesbury Register : March 7th 1925 Page 3

"Mr. and Mrs. Wilkins of the Nottingham Arms have this week received a post card from their son, Signaller Joseph Wilkins, of the Royal Corps of Signals, who was captured by the Japanese at the capitulation of Hong Kong, addressed from Osaka prisoners of war camp in Japan, informing them that he is in fairly good health, that he is working and hopes to see them in the near future."
"Signaller J. Wilkins"
The Tewkesbury Register : July 17th 1943 Page 1

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